QUESTIONS 91 - 196


Having seen what the scriptures principally teach us to believe concerning God, it follows to consider what they require as the duty of man.

Questions 91-94      (Moral Law) Question 145            (9th Comm. - What's Forbidden)
Questions 95-97      (Use of the Moral Law) Questions 146-148   (10th Comm.)
Questions 98-99      (Ten Commandments) Questions 149-150   (Sin)
Questions 100-101  (Ten Comm. & Preface) Question 151            (Sin - Some Worse than Others)
Questions 102-104  (1st Comm. & its Duties) Questions 152-154   (Sin)
Questions 105-106  (1st Comm. - What's Forbidden) Questions 155-157   (Bible)
Questions 106          (1st Comm. - Special Teaching) Questions 158-160   (Preaching)
Questions 107-108  (2nd Comm. & its Duties) Questions 160          (Listening to Preaching)
Question 109           (2nd Comm. - What's Forbidden) Questions 161-164   (Sacraments)
Question 110           (2nd Comm. - Reasons Annexed) Questions 165-166   (Baptism)
Questions 111-112  (3rd Comm. & its Duties) Questions 167          (Improving our Baptism)
Question 113           (3rd Comm. - What's Forbidden) Questions 168-169   (Lord's Supper)
Question 114           (3rd Comm. - Reasons Annexed) Questions 170-171   (Lord's Supper - Receiving It)
Questions 115-116  (4th Comm. & its Duties) Questions 172-173   (Lord's Supper - Coming to It)
Questions 117-118   (Keeping the Sabbath) Questions 174-175   (Lord's Supper - Taking It)
Questions 119-121  (4th Comm. - What's Forbidden) Questions 176-177   (Sacraments Compared)
Questions 122-123   (5th Comm.) Questions 178-179   (Prayer)
Questions 124-126   (Honoring Father and Mother) Questions 180-182   (Prayer - Christ & the Holy Spirit)
Questions 127-128   (Inferiors) Questions 183-185   (Prayer - For Whom, What, & How)
Questions 129-130   (Superiors) Questions 186-189   (Lord's Prayer)
Questions 131-133   (Equals) Question 190            (Lord's Prayer - 1st Petition)
Questions 134-135   (6th Comm. & its Duties) Question 191            (Lord's Prayer - 2nd Petition)
Question 136            (6th Comm. - What's Forbidden) Question 192            (Lord's Prayer - 3rd Petition)
Questions 137-138   (7th Comm. & its Duties) Question 193            (Lord's Prayer - 4th Petition)
Question 139            (7th Comm. - What's Forbidden) Question 194            (Lord's Prayer - 5th Petition)
Questions 140-141   (8th Comm.& its Duties) Question 195            (Lord's Prayer - 6th Petition)
Question 142            (8th Comm. - What's Forbidden) Question 196            (Lord's Prayer - Conclusion)
Questions 143-144   (9th Comm. & its Duties)  

Q91: What is the duty which God requireth of man?
A91: The duty which God requireth of man, is obedience to his revealed will.[1]

1. Rom. 12:1-2; Micah 6:8; I Sam. 15:22

Q92: What did God at first reveal unto man as the rule of his obedience?

A92: The rule of obedience revealed to Adam in the estate of innocence, and to all mankind in him, besides a special command not to eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, was the moral law.[2]

1. Gen. 1:26-27; 2:17; Rom. 2:14-15; 10:5

Q93: What is the moral law?
A93: The moral law is the declaration of the will of God to mankind, directing and binding everyone to personal, perfect, and perpetual conformity and obedience thereunto, in the frame and disposition of the whole man, soul and body,[1] and in performance of all those duties of holiness and righteousness which he oweth to God and man:[2] promising life upon the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the breach of it.[3]

1. Deut. 5:1-3, 31, 33; Luke 10:26-27; Gal. 3:10; I Thess. 5:23
2. Luke 1:75; Acts 14:16
3. Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:10, 12

Q94: Is there any use of the moral law to man since the fall?
A94: Although no man, since the fall, can attain to righteousness and life by the moral law;[1] yet there is great use thereof, as well common to all men, as peculiar either to the unregenerate, or the regenerate.[2]

1. Rom. 8:3; Gal. 2:16
2. I Tim. 1:8


Q95: Of what use is the moral law to all men?
A95: The moral law is of use to all men, to inform them of the holy nature and will of God,[1] and of their duty, binding them to walk accordingly;[2] to convince them of their disability to keep it, and of the sinful pollution of their nature, hearts, and lives;[3] to humble them in the sense of their sin and misery,[4] and thereby help them to a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ,[5] and of the perfection of his obedience.[6]

1. Lev. 11:44-45; 20:7-8; Rom. 7:12
2. Micah 6:8; James 2:10-11
3. Psa. 19:11-12; Rom. 3:20; 7:7
4. Rom. 3:9, 23
5. Gal. 3:21-22
6. Rom. 10:4

Q96: What particular use is there of the moral law to unregenerate men?
A96: The moral law is of use to unregenerate men, to awaken their consciences to flee from wrath to come,[1] and to drive them to Christ;[2] or, upon their continuance in the estate and way of sin, to leave them inexcusable,[3] and under the curse thereof.[4]

1. I Tim. 1:9-10
2. Gal. 3:24
3. Rom. 1:20; 2:15
4. Gal. 3:10

Q97: What special use is there of the moral law to the regenerate?
A97: Although they that are regenerate, and believe in Christ, be delivered from the moral law as a covenant of works,[1] so as thereby they are neither justified [2] nor condemned;[3] yet, besides the general uses thereof common to them with all men, it is of special use, to show them how much they are bound to Christ for his fulfilling it, and enduring the curse thereof in their stead, and for their good;[4] and thereby to provoke them to more thankfulness,[5] and to express the same in their greater care to conform themselves thereunto as the rule of their obedience.[6]

1. Rom. 6:14; 7:4, 6; Gal. 4:4-5
2. Rom. 3:20
3. Gal. 5:23; Rom. 8:1
4. Rom. 7:24-25; 8:3-4; Gal. 3:13-14
5. Luke 1:68-69, 74-75; Col. 1:12-14
6. Rom. 7:22; 12:2; Titus 2:11-14


Q98: Where is the moral law summarily comprehended?
A98: The moral law is summarily comprehended in the ten commandments, which were delivered by the voice of God upon mount Sinai, and written by him in two tables of stone;[1] and are recorded in the twentieth chapter of Exodus. The four first commandments containing our duty to God, and the other six our duty to man.[2]

1. Deut. 10:4; Exod. 34:1-4
2. Matt. 22:37-38, 40

Q99: What rules are to be observed for the right understanding of the ten commandments?
A99: For the right understanding of the ten commandments, these rules are to be observed: 1. That the law is perfect, and bindeth everyone to full conformity in the whole man unto the righteousness thereof, and unto entire obedience forever; so as to require the utmost perfection of every duty, and to forbid the least degree of every sin.[1]
2. That it is spiritual, and so reaches the understanding, will, affections, and all other powers of the soul; as well as words, works, and gestures.[2]
3. That one and the same thing, in divers respects, is required or forbidden in several commandments.[3]
4. That as, where a duty is commanded, the contrary sin is forbidden;[4] and, where a sin is forbidden, the contrary duty is commanded:[5] so, where a promise is annexed, the contrary threatening is included;[6] and, where a threatening is annexed, the contrary promise is included.[7]
5. That what God forbids, is at no time to be done;[8] What he commands, is always our duty;[9] and yet every particular duty is not to be done at all times.[10]
6. That under one sin or duty, all of the same kind are forbidden or commanded; together with all the causes, means, occasions, and appearances thereof, and provocations thereunto.[11]
7. That what is forbidden or commanded to ourselves, we are bound, according to our places, to endeavor that it may be avoided or performed by others, according to the duty of their places.[12]
8. That in what is commanded to others, we are bound, according to our places and callings, to be helpful to them;[13] and to take heed of partaking with others in: What is forbidden them.[14]

1. Psa. 19:7; James 2:10; Matt. 5:21-22
2. Rom. 7:14; Deut. 6:5; Matt. 5:21-22, 27-28, 33-34, 37-39, 43-44; 22:37-39
3. Col. 3:5; Amos 8:5; Prov. 1:19; I Tim. 6:10
4. Isa. 58:13; Deut. 6:13; Matt. 4:9-10; 15:4-6
5. Matt. 5:21-25; Eph. 4:28
6. Exod. 20:12; Prov. 30:17
7. Jer. 18:7-8; Exod. 20:7; Psa. 15:1, 4-5; 24:4-5
8. Job. 13:7; 36:21; Rom. 3:8; Heb. 11:25
9. Deut. 4:8-9
10. Matt. 12:7
11. Matt. 5:21-22, 27-28; 15:4-6; Heb. 10:24-25; I Thess. 5:22-23; Gal. 5:26; Col. 3:21
12. Exod. 20:10; Lev. 19:17; Gen. 18:19; Josh. 24:15; Deut. 6:6-7
13. II Cor. 1:24
14. I Tim. 5:22


Q100: What special things are we to consider in the ten commandments?
A100: We are to consider, in the ten commandments, the preface, the substance of the commandments themselves, and several reasons annexed to some of them, the more to enforce them.

Q101: What is the preface to the ten commandments?
A101: The preface to the ten commandments is contained in these words, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.[1] Wherein God manifesteth his sovereignty, as being JEHOVAH, the eternal, immutable, and almighty God;[2] having his being in and of himself,[3] and giving being to all his words [4] and works:[5] and that he is a God in covenant, as with Israel of old, so with all his people;[6] who, as he brought them out of their bondage in Egypt, so he delivers us from our spiritual thraldom;[7] and that therefore we are bound to take him for our God alone, and to keep all his commandments.[8]

1. Exod. 20:2
2. Isa. 44:6
3. Exod. 3:14
4. Exod. 6:3
5. Acts 17:24, 28
6. Gen. 17:7; Rom. 3:29
7. Luke 1:74-75
8. I Peter 1:15-18; Lev. 18:30, 19:37


Q102: What is the sum of the four commandments which contain our duty to God?
A102: The sum of the four commandments containing our duty to God is, to love the Lord our God with all our heart, and with all our soul, and with all our strength, and with all our mind.[1]

1. Luke 10:27

Q103: Which is the first commandment?
A103: The first commandment is, Thou shall have no other gods before me.[1]

1. Exod. 20:3

Q104: What are the duties required in the first commandment?
A104: The duties required in the first commandment are, the knowing and acknowledging of God to be the only true God, and our God;[1] and to worship and glorify him accordingly,[2] by thinking,[3] meditating,[4] remembering,[5] highly esteeming,[6] honoring,[7] adoring,[8] choosing,[9] loving,[10] desiring,[11] fearing of him;[12] believing him;[13] trusting,[14] hoping,[15] delighting,[16] rejoicing in him;[17] being zealous for him;[18] calling upon him, giving all praise and thanks,[19] and yielding all obedience and submission to him with the whole man;[20] being careful in all things to please him,[21] and sorrowful when in anything he is offended;[22] and walking humbly with him.[23]

1. I Chr. 28:9; Deut 26:17; Isa. 43:10; Jer. 14:22
2. Psa. 29:2; 95:6-7; Matt. 4:10
3. Mal. 3:16
4. Psa. 63:6
5. Eccl. 12:1
6. Psa. 71:19
7. Mal. 1:6
8. Isa. 45:28
9. Josh. 24:15, 22
10. Deut. 6:5
11. Psa. 73:25
12. Isa. 8:13
13. Exod. 14:31
14. Isa. 26:4
15. Psa. 130:7
16. Psa. 37:4
17. Psa. 32:11
18. Rom. 12:11; Num. 25:11
19. Phil. 4:6
20. Jer. 7:28; James 4:7
21. I John 3:22
22. Jer. 31:18; Psa. 119:136
23. Micah 6:8


Q105: What are the sins forbidden in the first commandment?
A105: The sins forbidden in the first commandment are, atheism, in denying or not having a God;[1] Idolatry, in having or worshiping more gods than one, or any with or instead of the true God;[2] the not having and avouching him for God, and our God;[3] the omission or neglect of anything due to him, required in this commandment;[4] ignorance,[5] forgetfulness,[6] misapprehensions,[7] false opinions,[8] unworthy and wicked thoughts of him;[9] bold and curious searching into his secrets;[10] all profaneness,[11] hatred of God;[12] self-love,[13] self-seeking,[14] and all other inordinate and immoderate setting of our mind, will, or affections upon other things, and taking them off from him in whole or in part;[15] vain credulity,[16] unbelief,[17] heresy,[18] misbelief,[19] distrust,[20] despair,[21] incorrigibleness,[22] and insensibleness under judgments,[23] hardness of heart,[24] pride,[25] presumption,[26] carnal security,[27] tempting of God;[28] using unlawful means,[29] and trusting in unlawful means;[30] carnal delights and joys;[31] corrupt, blind, and indiscreet zeal;[32] lukewarmness,[33] and deadness in the things of God;[34] estranging ourselves, and apostatizing from God;[35] praying, or giving any religious worship, to saints, angels, or any other creatures;[36] all compacts and consulting with the devil,[37] and hearkening to his suggestions;[38] making men the lords of our faith and conscience;[39] slighting and despising God and his commands;[40] resisting and grieving of his Spirit,[41] discontent and impatience at his dispensations, charging him foolishly for the evils he inflicts on us;[42] and ascribing the praise of any good we either are, have, or can do, to fortune,[43] idols,[44] ourselves,[45] or any other creature.[46]

1. Psa. 14:1; Eph. 2:12
2. Jer. 2:27-28; I Thess. 1:9
3. Psa. 81:11
4. Isa. 43:22-24
5. Jer. 4:22; Hosea 4:1, 6
6. Jer. 2:32
7. Acts 17:23, 29
8. Isa. 40:18
9. Psa. 1:21
10. Deut. 29:29
11. Titus 1:16; Heb. 12:16
12. Rom. 1:30
13. II Tim. 3:2
14. Phil. 2:21
15. I John 2:15-16; I Sam. 2:29; Col. 3:2, 5
16. I John 4:1
17. Heb. 3:12
18. Gal. 5:20; Titus 3:10
19. Acts 26:9
20. Psa. 78:22
21. Gen. 4:13
22. Jer. 5:3
23. Isa. 42:25
24. Rom. 2:5
25. Jer. 13:15
26. Psa. 19:13
27. Zeph. 1:12
28. Matt. 4:7
29. Rom. 3:8
30. Jer. 17:5
31. II Tim. 3:4
32. Gal. 4:17; John 16:2; Rom. 10:2; Luke 9:54-55
33. Rev. 3:16
34. Rev. 3:1
35. Ezek. 14:5; Isa. 1:4-5
36. Rom. 1:25, 10:13-14; Hosea 4:12; Acts 10:25-26; Rev. 19:10; Matt. 4:10; Col. 2:18
37. Lev. 20:6; I Sam. 28:7, 11; I Chr. 10:13-14
38. Acts 5:3
39. II Cor. 1:24; Matt. 23:9
40. Deut. 32:15; II Sam. 12:9; Prov. 13:13
41. Acts 7:51; Eph. 4:30
42. Psa. 73:2-3, 13-15, 22; Job 1:22
43. I Sam. 6:7-9
44. Dan. 5:23
45. Deut. 8:17; Dan. 4:30
46. Hab. 1:16


Q106: What are we specially taught by these words before me in the first commandment?
A106: These words before me, or before my face, in the first commandment, teach us, that God, who seeth all things, taketh special notice of, and is much displeased with, the sin of having any other God: that so it may be an argument to dissuade from it, and to aggravate it as a most impudent provocation:[1] as also to persuade us to do as in his sight,: Whatever we do in his service.[2]

1. Ezek. 8:5-18; Psa. 44:20-21
2. I Chr. 28:9


Q107: Which is the second commandment?
A107: The second commandment is, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.[1]

1. Exod. 20:4-6

Q108: What are the duties required in the second commandment?
A108: The duties required in the second commandment are, the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious worship and ordinances as God hath instituted in his word;[1] particularly prayer and thanksgiving in the name of Christ;[2] the reading, preaching, and hearing of the word;[3] the administration and receiving of the sacraments;[4] church government and discipline;[5] the ministry and maintenance thereof;[6] religious fasting;[7] swearing by the name of God,[8] and vowing unto him:[9] as also the disapproving, detesting, opposing, all false worship;[10] and, according to each one's place and calling, removing it, and all monuments of idolatry.[11]

1. Deut. 32:46-47; Matt. 28:30; Acts 2:42; I Tim. 6:13-14
2. Phil. 4:6; Eph. 5:20
3. Deut. 17:18-19; Acts 10:88; 15:21; II Tim. 4:2; James 1:21-22
4. Matt. 28:19; I Cor. 11:23-30
5. Matt. 16:19; 18:15-17; I Cor. ch. 5; 12:28
6. Eph. 4:11-12; I Tim. 5:17-18; I Cor. 9:1-15
7. Joel 2:12-13; I Cor. 7:5
8. Deut. 6:13
9. Isa. 19:21; Psa. 76:11
10. Acts 17:16-17; Psa. 16:4
11. Deut. 7:5; Isa. 30:22


Q109: What are the sins forbidden in the second commandment?
A109: The sins forbidden in the second commandment are, all devising,[1] counseling,[2] commanding,[3] using,[4] and anywise approving, any religious worship not instituted by God himself;[5] tolerating a false religion;[6] the making any representation of God, of all or of any of the three persons, either inwardly in our mind, or outwardly in any kind of image or likeness of any creature whatsoever;[7] all worshiping of it,[8] or God in it or by it;[9] the making of any representation of feigned deities,[10] and all worship of them, or service belonging to them;[11] all superstitious devices,[12] corrupting the worship of God,[13] adding to it, or taking from it,[14] whether invented and taken up of ourselves,[15] or received by tradition from others,[16] though under the title of antiquity,[17] custom,[18] devotion,[19] good intent, or any other pretense whatsoever;[20] simony;[21] sacrilege;[22] all neglect,[23] contempt,[24] hindering,[25] and opposing the worship and ordinances which God hath appointed.[26]

1. Num. 15:39
2. Deut. 13:6-8
3. Hosea 5:11; Micah 6:16
4. I Kings 11:33; 12:33
5. Deut. 12:30-32
6. Deut. 13:6-12; Zech. 13:2-3; Rev. 2:2, 14-15, 20, Rev. 17:12, 16-17
7. Deut. 4:15-19; Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:21-23, 25
8. Dan. 3:18; Gal. 4:8
9. Exod. 32:5
10. Exod. 32:8
11. I Kings 18:26, 28; Isa. 65:11
12. Acts 17:22; Col. 2:21-23
13. Mal. 1:7-8, 14
14. Deut. 4:2
15. Psa. 106:39
16. Matt. 15:9
17. I Peter 1:18
18. Jer. 44:17
19. Isa. 65:3-5; Gal. 1:13-14
20. I Sam. 13:11-12; 15:21
21. Acts 8:18
22. Rom. 2:22; Mal. 3:8
23. Exod. 4:24-26
24. Matt. 22:5; Mal. 1:7, 13
25. Matt. 23:13
26. Acts 13:44-45; I Thess. 2:15-16


Q110: What are the reasons annexed to the second commandment, the more to enforce it?
A110: The reasons annexed to the second commandment, the more to enforce it, contained in these words, For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments;[1] are, besides God's sovereignty over us, and propriety in us,[2] his fervent zeal for his own worship,[3] and his revengeful indignation against all false worship, as being a spiritual whoredom;[4] accounting the breakers of this commandment such as hate him, and threatening to punish them unto divers generations;[5] and esteeming the observers of it such as love him and keep his commandments, and promising mercy to them unto many generations.[6]

1. Exod. 20:5-6
2. Psa. 45:11; Rev. 20:3-4
3. Exod. 34:13-14
4. I Cor. 10:20-22; Jer. 7:18-20; Ezek. 16:26-27; Deut. 32:16-20
5. Hosea 2:2-4
6. Deut. 5:29


Q111: Which is the third commandment?
A111: The third commandment is, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.[1]

1. Exod. 20:7

Q112: What is required in the third commandment?
A112: The third commandment requires, That the name of God, his titles, attributes,[1] ordinances,[2] the word,[3] sacraments,[4] prayer,[5] oaths,[6] vows,[7] lots,[8] his works,[9] and whatsoever else there is whereby he makes himself known, be holily and reverently used in thought,[10] meditation,[11] word,[12] and writing;[13] by an holy profession,[14] and Answerable conversation,[15] to the glory of God,[16] and the good of ourselves,[17] and others.[18]

1. Matt. 6:9; Deut. 28:58; Psa. 29:2; 68:4; Rev. 15:3-4
2. Mal. 1:14; Eccl. 5:1
3. Psa. 138:2
4. I Cor. 11:24-25, 28-29
5. I Tim. 2:8
6. Jer. 4:2
7. Eccl. 5:2, 4-6
8. Acts 1:24, 26
9. Job 36:24
10. Mal. 3:16
11. Psa. 8:1, 3-4, 9
12. Col. 3:17; Psa. 105:2, 5
13. Psa. 102:18
14. I Peter 3:15; Micah 4:5
15. Phil. 1:27
16. I Cor. 10:31
17. Jer. 32:39
18. I Peter 2:12


Q113: What are the sins forbidden in the third commandment?
A113: The sins forbidden in the third commandment are, the not using of God's name as is required;[1] and the abuse of it in an ignorant,[2] vain,[3] irreverent, profane,[4] superstitious,[5] or wicked mentioning, or otherwise using his titles, attributes,[6] ordinances,[7] or works,[8] by blasphemy,[9] perjury;[10] all sinful cursings,[11] oaths,[12] vows,[13] and lots;[14] violating of our oaths and vows, if lawful;[15] and fulfilling them, if of things unlawful;[16] murmuring and quarreling at,[17] curious prying into,[18] and misapplying of God's decrees [19] and providences;[20] misinterpreting,[21] misapplying,[22] or any way perverting the word, or any part of it,[23] to profane jests,[24] curious or unprofitable Questions,[25] vain janglings, or the maintaining of false doctrines;[26] abusing it, the creatures, or anything contained under the name of God, to charms,[27] or sinful lusts and practices;[28] the maligning,[29] scorning,[30] reviling,[31] or any wise opposing of God's truth, grace, and ways;[32] making profession of religion in hypocrisy, or for sinister ends;[33] being ashamed of it,[34] or a shame to it, by unconformable,[35] unwise,[36] unfruitful,[37] and offensive walking,[38] or backsliding from it.[39]

1. Mal. 2:2
2. Acts 17:23
3. Prov. 30:9
4. Mal. 1:6-7, 12; 3:14
5. I Sam. 4:3-5; Jer. 7:4, 9-10, 14, 31; Col. 2:20-22
6. II Kings 18:30, 35; Exod. 5:2; Psa. 139:20
7. Psa. 50:16-17
8. Psa. 1:16-17
9. Isa. 5:12
10. II Kings 19:22; Lev. 24:11
11. Zech. 5:4; 8:17
12. I Sam. 17:43; II Sam. 16:5
13. Jer. 5:7; 23:10
14. Deut. 23:18; Acts 23:12, 14
15. Esth. 3:7; 9:24; Psa. 22:18
16. Psa. 24:4, Ezek. 17:16, 18-19
17. Mark 6:26; I Sam. 25:22, 32-34
18. Rom. 9:14, 19-20
19. Deut. 29:29
20. Rom. 3:5, 7; 6:1-2
21. Eccl. 8:11; 9:3; Psa. ch. 39
22. Matt. 5:21-48
23. Ezek 13:22
24. II Peter 3:16; Matt. 22:24-31
25. Isa. 22:18; Jer. 23:34, 36, 38
26. I Tim. 1:4, 6-7; 6:4-5, 20; II Tim. 2:14; Titus. 3:9
27. Deut. 18:10-14; Acts 19:13
28. II Tim. 4:3-4; Rom. 13:13-14; I Kings 21:9-10; Jude 1:4
29. Acts 13:45; I John 3:12
30. Psa. 1:1; II Peter 3:3
31. I Peter 4:4
32. Acts 4:18; 13:45-46, 50; 19:9; I Thess 2:16; Heb. 10:29
33. II Tim. 3:5; Matt. 6:1-2, 5, 16; 23:14
34. Mark 8:38
35. Psa. 73:14-15
36. I Cor. 6:5-6; Eph. 5:15-17
37. Isa. 5:4; II Peter 1:8-9
38. Rom. 2:23-24
39. Gal. 3:1, 3; Heb. 6:6


Q114: What reasons are annexed to the third commandment?
A114: The reasons annexed to the third commandment, in these words, The Lord thy God, and, For the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain,[1] are, because he is the Lord and our God, therefore his name is not to be profaned, or any way abused by us;[2] especially because he will be so far from acquitting and sparing the transgressors of this commandment, as that he will not suffer them to escape his righteous judgment,[3] albeit many such escape the censures and punishments of men.[4]

1. Exod. 20:7
2. Lev. 19:12
3. Ezek. 36:21-23; Deut. 28:58-59; Zech. 5:2-4
4. I Sam. 2:12, 17, 22, 24; 3:18


Q115: Which is the fourth commandment?
A115: The fourth commandment is, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.[1]

1. Exod. 20:8-11

Q116: What is required in the fourth commandment?
A116: The fourth commandment requires of all men the sanctifying or keeping holy to God such set times as he hath appointed in his word, expressly one whole day in seven; which was the seventh from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, and the first day of the week ever since, and so to continue to the end of the world; which is the Christian sabbath,[1] and in the New Testament called The Lord's day.[2]

1. Deut. 5:12, 14, 18; Gen. 2:2-3; I Cor. 16:1-2; Acts 20:7; Matt. 5:17-18; Isa. 56:2, 4, 6-7
2. Rev. 1:10


Q117: How is the sabbath or the Lord's day to be sanctified?
A117: The sabbath or Lord's day is to be sanctified by an holy resting all the day,[1] not only from such works as are at all times sinful, but even from such worldly employments and recreations as are on other days lawful;[2] and making it our delight to spend the whole time (except so much of it as is to betaken up in works of necessity and mercy)[3] in the public and private exercises of God's worship:[4] and, to that end, we are to prepare our hearts, and with such foresight, diligence, and moderation, to dispose and seasonably dispatch our worldly business, that we may be the more free and fit for the duties of that day.[5]

1. Exod. 20:8, 10
2. Exod. 16:25-28; Neh. 13:15-22; Jer. 17:21-22
3. Matt. 12:1-13
4. Isa. 58:18; 66:23; Luke 4:16; Acts 20:7; I Cor. 16:1-2; Psa. ch. 92; Lev. 23:3
5. Exod. 16:22, 25-26, 29; 20:8; Luke 23:54, 56; Neh. 13:19

Q118: Why is the charge of keeping the sabbath more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors?
A118: The charge of keeping the sabbath is more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors, because they are bound not only to keep it themselves, but to see that it be observed by all those that are under their charge; and because they are prone ofttimes to hinder them by employments of their own.[1]

1. Exod. 20:10; 23:12; Josh. 24:15; Neh. 13:15, 17; Jer. 17:20-22


Q119: What are the sins forbidden in the fourth commandment?
A119: The sins forbidden in the fourth commandment are, all omissions of the duties required,[1] all careless, negligent, and unprofitable performing of them, and being weary of them;[2] all profaning the day by idleness, and doing that which is in itself sinful;[3] and by all needless works, words, and thoughts, about our worldly employments and recreations.[4]

1. Ezek. 22:26
2. Acts 15:7, 9; Ezek. 33:30-32; Amos 8:5; Mal. 1:13
3. Ezek. 23:38
4. Jer. 17:24, 27; Isa. 58:13

Q120: What are the reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it?
A120: The reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it, are taken from the equity of it, God allowing us six days of seven for our own affairs, and reserving but one for himself, in these words, Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work:[1] from God's challenging a special propriety in that day, The seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God:[2] from the example of God, who in six days made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: and from that blessing which God put upon that day, not only in sanctifying it to be a day for his service, but in ordaining it to be a means of blessing to us in our sanctifying it; Wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.[3]

1. Exod. 20:9
2. Exod. 20:10
3. Exod. 20:11

Q121: Why is the word Remember set in the beginning of the fourth commandment?
A121: The word Remember is set in the beginning of the fourth commandment,[1] partly, because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped in our preparation to keep it,[2] and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments,[3] and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of creation and redemption, which contain a short abridgment of religion;[4] and partly, because we are very ready to forget it,[5] for that there is less light of nature for it,[6] and yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things at other times lawful;[7] that it comesthbut once in seven days, and many worldly businesses come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to prepare for it, or to sanctify it;[8] and that Satan with his instruments much labor to blot out the glory, and even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety.[9]

1. Exod. 20:8
2. Exod. 16:23; Luke 23:54, 56; Mark 15:42; Neh. 13:19
3. Psa. 92:13-14; Ezek. 20:12, 19-20
4. Gen. 2:2-3; Psa. 118:22, 24; Acts 4:10, 11; Rev. 1:10
5. Ezek. 22:26
6. Neh. 9:14
7. Exod. 34:21
8. Deut. 5:14-15; Amos 8:5
9. Lam. 1:7; Jer. 17:21-23; Neh. 13:15-23


Q122: What is the sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man?
A122: The sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man is, to love our neighbor as ourselves,[1] and to do to others what we would have them to do to us.[2]

1. Matt. 22:39
2. Matt. 7:12

Q123: Which is the fifth commandment?
A123: The fifth commandment is, Honor thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.[1]

1. Exod. 20:12


Q124: Who are meant by father and mother in the fifth commandment?
A124: By father and mother, in the fifth commandment, are meant, not only natural parents,[1] but all superiors in age [2] and gifts;[3] and especially such as, by God's ordinance, are over us in place of authority, whether in family,[4] church,[5] or commonwealth.[6]

1. Prov. 23:22-25; Eph. 6:1-2
2. I Tim. 5:1-2
3. Gen. 4:20-22; 45:8
4. II Kings 5:13
5. II Kings 2:12; 13:14; Gal. 4:19
6. Isa. 49:23

Q125: Why are superiors styled Father and Mother?
A125: Superiors are styled Father and Mother, both to teach them in all duties toward their inferiors, like natural parents, to express love and tenderness to them, according to their several relations;[1] and to work inferiors to a greater willingness and cheerfulness in performing their duties to their superiors, as to their parents.[2]

1. Eph. 6:4; II Cor. 12:14; I Thess. 2:7-8, 11; Num. 11:11-12
2. I Cor. 4:14-16; II Kings 5:13

Q126: What is the general scope of the fifth commandment?
A126: The general scope of the fifth commandment is, the performance of those duties which we mutually owe in our several relations, as inferiors, superiors, or equals.[1]

1. Eph. 5:21; I Peter 2:17; Rom. 12:10


Q127: What is the honor that inferiors owe to their superiors.?
A127: The honor which inferiors owe to their superiors is, all due reverence in heart,[1] word,[2] and behavior;[3] prayer and thanksgiving for them;[4] imitation of their virtues and graces;[5] willing obedience to their lawful commands and counsels;[6] due submission to their corrections;[7] fidelity to,[8] defense [9] and maintenance of their persons and authority, according to their several ranks, and the nature of their places;[10] bearing with their infirmities, and covering them in love, that so they may be an honor to them and to their government.[11]

1. Mal. 1:6; Lev. 19:3
2. Prov. 31:28; I Peter 3:6
3. Lev. 19:32; I Kings 2:19
4. I Tim. 2:1-2
5. Heb. 13:7; Phil. 3:17
6. Eph. 6:1-2, 5-7; I Peter 2:13-14; Rom. 13:1-5; Heb. 13:17; Prov. 4:3-4; 23:22; Exod. 18:19, 24
7. Heb. 12:9; I Peter 2:18-20
8. Titus 2:9-10
9. I Sam. 26:15-16; II Sam. 18:3; Est.. 6:2
10. Matt. 22:21; Rom. 13:6-7; I Tim. 5:17-18; Gal. 6:6; Gen. 45:11; 47:12
11. Psa. 127:3-5; Prov. 31:23

Q128: What are the sins of inferiors against their superiors?
A128: The sins of inferiors against their superiors are, all neglect of the duties required toward them;[1] envying at,[2] contempt of,[3] and rebellion [4] against, their persons [5] and places,[6] in their lawful counsels,[7] commands, and corrections;[8] cursing, mocking,[9] and all such refractory and scandalous carriage, as proves a shame and dishonor to them and their government.[10]

1. Matt. 15:4-6
2. Num. 11:28-29
3. I Sam. 8:7; Isa. 3:5
4. II Sam. 15:1-12
5. Exod. 21:15
6. I Sam. 10:27
7. I Sam. 2:25
8. Deut. 21:18-21
9. Prov. 30:11, 17
10. Prov. 19:26


Q129: What is required of superiors towards their inferiors?
A129: It is required of superiors, according to that power they receive from God, and that relation wherein they stand, to love,[1] pray for,[2] and bless their inferiors;[3] to instruct,[4] counsel, and admonish them;[5] countenancing,[6] commending,[7] and rewarding such as do well;[8] and discountenancing,[9] reproving, and chastising such as do ill;[10] protecting,[11] and providing for them all things necessary for soul [12] and body:[13] and by grave, wise, holy, and exemplary carriage, to procure glory to God,[14] honor to themselves,[15] and so to preserve that authority which God hath put upon them.[16]

1. Col. 3:19; Titus 2:4
2. I Sam. 12:28; Job 1:5
3. I Kings 8:55-56; Heb. 7:7; Gen. 49:28
4. Deut. 6:6-7
5. Eph. 6:4
6. I Peter 3:7
7. I Peter 2:14; Rom. 13:3
8. Esth. 6:3
9. Rom. 13:3-4
10. Prov. 29:15; I Peter 2:14
11. Job 29:12-17; Isa. 1:10, 17
12. Eph. 6:4
13. I Tim. 5:8
14. I Tim. 4:12; Titus 2:3-5
15. I Kings 3:28
16. Titus 2:15

Q130: What are the sins of superiors?
A130: The sins of superiors are, besides the neglect of the duties required of them,[1] an inordinate seeking of themselves,[2] their own glory,[3] ease, profit, or pleasure;[4] commanding things unlawful,[5] or not in the power of inferiors to perform;[6] counseling,[7] encouraging,[8] or favoring them in that which is evil;[9] dissuading, discouraging, or discountenancing them in that which is good;[10] correcting them unduly;[11] careless exposing, or leaving them to wrong, temptation, and danger;[12] provoking them to wrath;[13] or any way dishonoring themselves, or lessening their authority, by an unjust, indiscreet, rigorous, or remiss behavior.[14]

1. Ezek. 34:2-4
2. Phil. 2:21
3. John 5:44; 7:18
4. Isa. 56:10-1; Deut. 17:17
5. Dan. 3:4-6; Acts 4:17-18
6. Exod. 5:10-18; Matt. 23:2, 4
7. Matt. 14:8; Mark 6:24
8. II Sam. 13:28
9. I Sam. 3:13
10. John 7:46-49; Col. 3:21; Exod. 5:17
11. I Peter 2:18-20; Heb. 12:10; Deut. 25:3
12. Gen. 38:11, 26; Acts 18:17
13. Eph. 6:4
14. Gen. 9:21; I Kings 1:6; 12:13-16; I Sam. 2:29-31


Q131: What are the duties of equals?
A131: The duties of equals are, to regard the dignity and worth of each other,[1] in giving honor to go one before another;[2] and to rejoice in each other's gifts and advancement, as their own.[3]

1. I Peter 2:17
2. Rom. 12:10
3. Rom. 12:15-16; Phil. 2:3-4

Q132: What are the sins of equals?
A132: The sins of equals are, besides the neglect of the duties required,[1] the undervaluing of the worth,[2] envying the gifts,[3] grieving at the advancement of prosperity one of another;[4] and usurping preeminence one over another.[5]

1. Rom. 13:8
2. II Tim. 3:3
3. Acts 7:9; Gal. 5:26
4. Num. 12:2; Est. 6:12-13
5. III John 1:9; Luke 22:24

Q133: What is the reason annexed to the fifth commandment, the more to enforce it?
A133: The reason annexed to the fifth commandment, in these words, That thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee,[1] is an express promise of long life and prosperity, as far as it shall serve for God's glory and their own good, to all such as keep this commandment.[2]

1. Exod. 20:12
2. Deut. 5:16; I Kings 8:25; Eph. 6:2-3


Q134: Which is the sixth commandment?
A134: The sixth commandment is, Thou shalt not kill.[1]

1. Exod. 20:13

Q135: What are the duties required in the sixth commandment?
A135: The duties required in the sixth commandment are, all careful studies, and lawful endeavors, to preserve the life of ourselves [1] and others [2] by resisting all thoughts and purposes,[3] subduing all passions,[4] and avoiding all occasions,[5] temptations,[6] and practices, which tend to the unjust taking away the life of any;[7] by just defense thereof against violence,[8] patient bearing of the hand of God,[9] quietness of mind,[10] cheerfulness of spirit;[11] a sober use of meat,[12] drink,[13] physic,[14] sleep,[15] labor,[16] and recreations;[17] by charitable thoughts,[18] love,[19] compassion,[20] meekness, gentleness, kindness;[21] peaceable,[22] mild and courteous speeches and behavior;[23] forbearance, readiness to be reconciled, patient bearing and forgiving of injuries, and requiting good for evil;[24] comforting and succoring the distressed, and protecting and defending the innocent.[25]

1. Eph. 5:28-29
2. I Kings 18:4
3. Jer. 26:15-16; Acts 23:12, 16-17, 21, 27
4. Eph. 4:26-27
5. II Sam. 2:22; Deut. 22:8
6. Matt. 4:6-7; Prov. 1:10-11, 15-16
7. I Sam. 24:2; 26:9-11; Gen. 37:21-22
8. Psa. 82:4; Prov. 24:11-12; I Sam. 14:45
9. James 5:7-11; Heb. 12:9
10. I Thess. 4:11; I Peter 3:3-4; Psa. 37:8-11
11. Prov. 17:22
12. Prov. 25:16, 27
13. I Tim. 5:23
14. Isa. 38:21
15. Psa. 127:2
16. Eccl. 5:12; II Thess. 3:10, 12; Prov. 16:26
17. Eccl. 3:4, 11
18. I Sam. 19:4-5; 22:13-14
19. Rom. 13:10
20. Luke 10:33-34
21. Col. 3:12-13
22. James 3:17
23. I Peter 3:8-11; Prov. 15:1; Judg. 8:1-3
24. Matt. 5:24; Eph. 4:2, 32; Rom. 12:17, 20-21
25. I Thess. 5:14; Job 31:19-20; Matt. 25:35-36; Prov. 31:8-9


Q136: What are the sins forbidden in the sixth commandment?
A136: The sins forbidden in the sixth commandment are, all taking away the life of ourselves,[1] or of others,[2] except in case of public justice,[3] lawful war,[4] or necessary defense;[5] the neglecting or withdrawing the lawful and necessary means of preservation of life;[6] sinful anger,[7] hatred,[8] envy,[9] desire of revenge;[10] all excessive passions,[11] distracting cares;[12] immoderate use of meat, drink,[13] labor,[14] and recreations;[15] provoking words,[16] oppression,[17] quarreling,[18] striking, wounding,[19] and: Whatsoever else tends to the destruction of the life of any.[20]

1. Acts 16:28
2. Gen. 9:6
3. Num. 35:31, 33
4. Jer. 48:10; Deut. ch. 20
5. Exod. 22:2-3
6. Matt. 25:42-43; James 2:15-16; Eccl. 6:1-2
7. Matt. 5:22
8. I John 3:15; Lev. 19:17
9. Prov. 14:30
10. Rom. 12:19
11. Eph. 4:31
12. Matt. 6:31, 34
13. Luke 21:34; Rom. 13:13
14. Eccl. 2:22-23; 12:12
15. Isa. 5:12
16. Prov. 12:18; 15:1
17. Ezek. 18:18; Exod. 1:14
18. Gal. 5:15; Prov. 23:29
19. Num. 35:16-18, 21
20. Exod. 21:18-36


Q137: Which is the seventh commandment?
A137: The seventh commandment is, Thou shalt not commit adultery.[1]

1. Exod. 20:14

Q138: What are the duties required in the seventh commandment?
A138: The duties required in the seventh commandment are, chastity in body, mind, affections,[1] words,[2] and behavior;[3] and the preservation of it in ourselves and others;[4] watchfulness over the eyes and all the senses;[5] temperance,[6] keeping of chaste company,[7] modesty in apparel;[8] marriage by those that have not the gift of continency,[9] conjugal love,[10] and cohabitation;[11] diligent labor in our callings;[12] shunning all occasions of uncleanness, and resisting temptations thereunto.[13]

1. I Thess. 4:4; Job 31:1; I Cor. 7:34
2. Col. 4:6
3. I Peter 2:3
4. I Cor. 7:2, 35-36
5. Job 31:1
6. Acts 24:24
7. Prov. 2:16-20
8. I Tim. 2:9
9. I Cor. 7:2, 9
10. Prov. 5:19-20
11. I Peter 3:7
12. Prov. 31:11, 27-28
13. Prov. 5:8; Gen. 39:8-10


Q139: What are the sins forbidden in the seventh commandment?
A139: The sins forbidden in the seventh commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,[1] are, adultery, fornication,[2] rape, incest,[3] sodomy, and all unnatural lusts;[4] all unclean imaginations, thoughts, purposes, and affections;[5] all corrupt or filthy communications, or listening thereunto;[6] wanton looks,[7] impudent or light behavior, immodest apparel;[8] prohibiting of lawful,[9] and dispensing with unlawful marriages;[10] allowing, tolerating, keeping of stews, and resorting to them;[11] entangling vows of single life,[12] undue delay of marriage;[13] having more wives or husbands than one at the same time;[14] unjust divorce,[15] or desertion;[16] idleness, gluttony, drunkenness,[17] unchaste company;[18] lascivious songs, books, pictures, dancings, stage plays;[19] and all other provocations to, or acts of uncleanness, either in ourselves or others.[20]

1. Prov. 5:7
2. Heb. 13:4; Gal. 5:19
3. II Sam. 13:14; I Cor. 5:1
4. Rom. 1:24, 26-27; Lev. 20:15-16
5. Matt. 5:28; 15:19; Col. 3:5
6. Eph. 5:3-4; Prov. 7:5, 21-22
7. Isa. 3:16; II Peter 2:14
8. Prov. 7:10, 13
9. I Tim. 4:3
10. Lev. 18:1-21; Mark 6:18; Mal. 2:11-12
11. I Kings 15:12; II Kings 23:7; Deut. 23:17-18; Lev. 19:29; Jer. 5:7; Prov. 7:24-27
12. Matt. 19:10-11
13. I Cor. 7:7-9; Gen. 38:26
14. Mal. 2:14-15; Matt. 19:5
15. Mal. 2:16; Matt. 5:32
16. I Cor. 7:12-13
17. Ezek. 16:49; Prov. 23:30-33
18. Gen. 39:10; Prov. 5:8
19. Eph. 5:4; Ezek. 23:14-16; Isa. 3:16; 23:15-17; Mark 6:22; Rom. 13:13; I Peter 4:3
20. II Kings 9:30; Jer. 4:30; Ezek. 23:40


Q140: Which is the eighth commandment?
A140: The eighth commandment is, Thou shalt not steal.[1]

1. Exod. 20:15

Q141: What are the duties required in the eighth commandment?
A141: The duties required in the eighth commandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice in contracts and commerce between man and man;[1] rendering to everyone his due;[2] restitution of goods unlawfully detained from the right owners thereof;[3] giving and lending freely, according to our abilities, and the necessities of others;[4] moderation of our judgments, wills, and affections concerning worldly goods;[5] a provident care and study to get,[6] keep, use, and dispose these things which are necessary and convenient for the sustentation of our nature, and suitable to our condition;[7] a lawful calling,[8] and diligence in it;[9] frugality;[10] avoiding unnecessary lawsuits [11] and suretyship, or other like engagements;[12] and an endeavor, by all just and lawful means, to procure, preserve, and further the wealth and outward estate of others, as well as our own.[13]

1. Psa. 15:2, 4; Zech. 7:4, 10; 8:16-17
2. Rom. 13:7
3. Lev. 6:2-5; Luke 19:8
4. Luke 6:30, 38; I John 3:17; Eph. 4:28; Gal. 6:10
5. I Tim. 6:6-9; Gal. 6:14
6. I Tim. 5:8
7. Prov. 27:23-27; Eccl. 2:24; 3:12-13; I Tim. 6:17-18; Isa. 38:1; Matt. 11:8
8. I Cor. 7:20; Gen. 2:15, 3:19
9. Eph. 4:28; Prov. 10:4
10. John 6:12; Prov. 21:20
11. I Cor. 6:1-9
12. Prov. 6:1-6; 11:15
13. Lev. 25:35; Deut. 22:1-4; Exod. 23:4-5; Gen. 47:14, 20; Phil. 2:4, Matt. 22:39


Q142: What are the sins forbidden in the eighth commandment?
A142: The sins forbidden in the eighth commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,[1] are, theft,[2] robbery,[3] man-stealing,[4] and receiving anything that is stolen;[5] fraudulent dealing,[6] false weights and measures,[7] removing land marks,[8] injustice and unfaithfulness in contracts between man and man,[9] or in matters of trust;[10] oppression,[11] extortion,[12] usury,[13] bribery,[14] vexatious lawsuits,[15] unjust enclosures and depopulations;[16] engrossing commodities to enhance the price;[17] unlawful callings,[18] and all other unjust or sinful ways of taking or withholding from our neighbor what belongs to him, or of enriching ourselves;[19] covetousness;[20] inordinate prizing and affecting worldly goods;[21] distrustful and distracting cares and studies in getting, keeping, and using them;[22] envying at the prosperity of others;[23] as likewise idleness,[24] prodigality, wasteful gaming; and all other ways whereby we do unduly prejudice our own outward estate,[25] and defrauding ourselves of the due use and comfort of that estate which God hath given us.[26]

1. James 2:15-16; I John 3:17
2. Eph. 4:28; Psa. 42:10
3. Psa. 62:10
4. I Tim. 1:10
5. Prov. 29:24; Psa. 1:18
6. I Thess. 4:6
7. Prov. 11:1; 20:10
8. Deut. 19:14; Prov. 23:10
9. Amos 8:5; Psa. 37:21
10. Luke 16:10-12
11. Ezek. 22:29; Lev. 25:17
12. Matt. 23:25; Ezek. 22:12
13. Psa. 15:5
14. Job 15:34
15. I Cor. 6:6-8; Prov. 3:29-30
16. Isa. 5:8; Micah 2:2
17. Prov. 11:26
18. Acts 19:19, 24-25
19. Job. 20:19; James 5:4; Prov. 21:6
20. Luke 12:15
21. I Tim. 6:5; Col. 3:2; Prov. 23:5; Psa. 42:10
22. Matt. 6:25, 31, 34, Eccl. 5:12
23. Psa. 37:1, 7; 73:3
24. II Thess. 3:11; Prov. 18:9
25. Prov. 21:17; 23:20-21; 28:19
26. Eccl. 4:8; 6:2; I Tim. 5:8


Q143: Which is the ninth commandment?
A143: The ninth commandment is, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.[1]

1. Exod. 20:16

Q144: What are the duties required in the ninth commandment?
A144: The duties required in the ninth commandment are, the preserving and promoting of truth between man and man,[1] and the good name of our neighbor, as well as our own;[12] appearing and standing for the truth;[3] and from the heart,[4] sincerely,[5] freely,[6] clearly,[7] and fully,[8] speaking the truth, and only the truth, in matters of judgment and justice,[9] and in all other things whatsoever;[10] a charitable esteem of our neighbors;[11] loving, desiring, and rejoicing in their good name;[12] sorrowing for,[13] and covering of their infirmities;[14] freely acknowledging of their gifts and graces,[15] defending their innocency;[16] a ready receiving of a good report,[17] and unwillingness to admit of an evil report,[18] concerning them; discouraging talebearers,[19] flatterers,[20] and slanderers;[21] love and care of our own good name, and defending it when need requireth;[22] keeping of lawful promises;[23] studying and practicing of whatsoever things are true, honest, lovely, and of good report.[24]

1. Zech. 8:16
2. III John 1:12
3. Prov. 31:8-9
4. Psa. 15:2
5. II Chr. 19:9
6. I Sam. 19:4-5
7. Josh. 7:19
8. II Sam. 14:18-20
9. Lev. 19:15; Prov. 14:5, 25
10. II Cor. 1:17-18; Eph. 4:25
11. Heb. 6:9; I Cor. 13:7
12. Rom. 1:8; II John 1:4; III John 1:3-4
13. II Cor. 2:4; 12:21
14. Prov. 17:9; I Peter 4:8
15. I Cor. 1:4-5, 7; II Tim. 1:4-5
16. I Sam. 22:14
17. I Cor. 13:6-7
18. Psa. 15:3
19. Prov. 25:23
20. Prov. 26:24-25
21. Psa. 101:5
22. Prov. 22:1; John 8:49
23. Psa. 15:4
24. Phil. 4:8


Q145: What are the sins forbidden in the ninth commandment?
A145: The sins forbidden in the ninth commandment are, all prejudicing the truth, and the good name of our neighbors, as well as our own,[1] especially in public judicature;[2] giving false evidence,[3] suborning false witnesses,[4] wittingly appearing and pleading for an evil cause, outfacing and overbearing the truth;[5] passing unjust sentence,[6] calling evil good, and good evil; rewarding the wicked according to the work of the righteous, and the righteous according to the work of the wicked;[7] forgery,[8] concealing the truth, undue silence in a just cause,[9] and holding our peace when iniquity calleth for either a reproof from ourselves,[10] or complaint to others;[11] speaking the truth unseasonably,[12] or maliciously to a wrong end,[13] or perverting it to a wrong meaning,[14] or in doubtful and equivocal expressions, to the prejudice of truth or justice;[15] speaking untruth,[16] lying,[17] slandering,[18] backbiting,[19] detracting,[20] tale bearing,[21] whispering,[22] scoffing,[23] reviling,[24] rash,[25] harsh,[26] and partial censuring;[27] misconstructing intentions, words, and actions;[28] flattering,[29] vainglorious boasting,[30] thinking or speaking too highly or too meanly of ourselves or others;[31] denying the gifts and graces of God;[32] aggravating smaller faults;[33] hiding, excusing, or extenuating of sins, when called to a free confession;[34] unnecessary discovering of infirmities;[35] raising false rumors,[36] receiving and countenancing evil reports,[37] and stopping our ears against just defense;[38] evil suspicion;[39] envying or grieving at the deserved credit of any,[40] endeavoring or desiring to impair it,[41] rejoicing in their disgrace and infamy;[42] scornful contempt,[43] fond admiration;[44] breach of lawful promises;[45] neglecting such things as are of good report,[46] and practicing, or not avoiding ourselves, or not hindering: What we can in others, such things as procure an ill name.[47]

1. I Sam. 17:28; II Sam. 1:9-10, 15-16; 16:3
2. Lev. 19:15; Hab. 1:4
3. Prov. 6:16, 19; 19:5
4. Acts 6:13
5. Jer. 9:3, 5; Acts 24:2, 5; Psa. 3:1-4; 12:3-4
6. Prov. 17:15; I Kings 21:9-14
7. Isa. 5:23
8. Psa. 119:69; Luke 16:5-7; 19:8
9. Lev. 5:1; Acts 5:3, 8-9; II Tim. 4:6
10. I Kings 1:6; Lev. 19:17
11. Isa. 59:4
12. Prov. 29:11
13. I Sam. 22:9-10; Psa. 52:1
14. Psa. 56:5; John 2:19; Matt. 26:60-61
15. Gen. 3:5, 26:7, 9
16. Isa. 59:13
17. Lev. 19:11; Col. 3:9
18. Psa. 1:20
19. Psa. 15:3
20. James 4:11; Jer. 38:4
21. Lev. 19:16
22. Rom. 1:29-30
23. Gen. 21:9; Gal. 4:29
24. I Cor. 6:10
25. Mattt. 7:1
26. Acts 28:4
27. Gen. 38:24; Rom. 2:1
28. Neh. 6:6-8; Rom. 3:8; Psa. 69:10; I Sam. 1:13-15; II Sam. 10:3
29. Psa. 12:2-3
30. II Tim. 3:2
31. Luke 18:9, 11; Rom. 12:16; I Cor. 4:6; Acts 12:22; Exod. 4:10-14
32. Job 4:6, 27:5-6
33. Matt. 7:3-5
34. Prov. 28:13; 30:20; Gen. 3:12-13; 4:9; Jer. 2:35; II Kings 5:25
35. Gen. 9:22; Prov. 25:9-10
36. Exod. 23:1
37. Prov. 29:12
38. Acts 7:56-57; Job 31:13-14
39. I Cor. 13:5; I Tim. 6:4
40. Num. 11:29; Matt. 21:15
41. Ezra 4:12-13
42. Jer. 48:27
43. Psa. 35:15-16, 21; Matt. 27:28-29
44. Jude 1:16; Acts 12:22
45. Rom. 1:31; II Tim. 3:3
46. I Sam. 2:24
47. II Sam. 13:12-13; Prov. 5:8-9; 6:33


Q146: Which is the tenth commandment?
A146: The tenth commandment is, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor's.[1]

1. Exod. 20:17

Q147: What are the duties required in the tenth commandment?
A147: The duties required in the tenth commandment are, such a full contentment with our own condition,[1] and such a charitable frame of the whole soul toward our neighbor, as that all our inward motions and affections touching him, tend unto, and further all that good which is his.[2]

1. Heb. 13:5; I Tim. 6:6
2. Job 31:29; Psa. 122:79; I Tim. 1:5; Est. 10:3; I Cor. 13:4-7

Q148: What are the sins forbidden in the tenth commandment?
A148: The sins forbidden in the tenth commandment are, discontentment with our own estate;[1] envying [2] and grieving at the good of our neighbor,[3] together with all inordinate motions and affections to anything that is his.[4]

1. I Kings 21:4; Est. 5:13; I Cor. 10:10
2. Gal. 5:26; James 3:14, 16
3. Psa. 122:9-10; Neh. 2:10
4. Rom. 7:7-8; Rom. 13:9; Col. 3:5; Deut. 5:21


Q149: Is any man able perfectly to keep the commandments of God?
A149: No man is able, either of himself,[1] or by any grace received in this life, perfectly to keep the commandments of God;[2] but doth daily break them in thought,[3] word, and deed.[4]

1. James 3:2; John 15:5; Rom. 8:3
2. Eccl. 7:20; I John 1:8, 10; Gal. 5:17; Rom. 7:18-19
3. Gen. 6:5, 8:21
4. Rom. 3:9-19; James 3:2-13

Q150: Are all transgressions of the law of God equally heinous in themselves, and in the sight of God?
A150: All transgressions of the law of God are not equally heinous; but some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations, are more heinous in the sight of God than others.[1]

1. John 19:11; Ezek. 8:6, 13, 15; I John 5:16; Psa. 78:17, 32, 56


Q151: What are those aggravations that make some sins more heinous than others?
A151: Sins receive their aggravations,
1. From the persons offending:[1] if they be of riper age,[2] greater experience or grace,[3] eminent for profession,[4] gifts,[5] place,[6] office,[7] guides to others,[8] and whose example is likely to be followed by others.[9]
2. From the parties offended:[10] if immediately against God,[11] his attributes,[12] and worship;[13] against Christ, and his grace;[14] the Holy Spirit,[15] his witness,[16] and workings;[17] against superiors, men of eminency,[18] and such as we stand especially related and engaged unto;[19] against any of the saints,[20] particularly weak brethren,[21] the souls of them, or any other,[22] and the common good of all or many.[23]

3. From the nature and quality of the offense:[24] if it be against the express letter of the law,[25] break many commandments, contain in it many sins:[26] if not only conceived in the heart, but breaks forth in words and actions,[27] scandalize others,[28] and admit of no reparation:[29] if against means,[30] mercies,[31] judgments,[32] light of nature,[33] conviction of conscience,[34] public or private admonition,[35] censures of the church,[36] civil punishments;[37] and our prayers, purposes, promises,[38] vows,[39] covenants,[40] and engagements to God or men:[41] if done deliberately,[42] wilfully,[43] presumptuously,[44] impudently,[45] boastingly,[46] maliciously,[47] frequently,[48] obstinately,[49] with delight,[50] continuance,[51] or relapsing after repentance.[52]

4. From circumstances of time [53] and place:[54] if on the Lord's day,[55] or other times of divine worship;[56] or immediately before [57] or after these,[58] or other helps to prevent or remedy such miscarriages:[59] if in public, or in the presence of others, who are thereby likely to be provoked or defiled.[60]

1. Jer. 2:8
2. Job 32:7, 9; Eccl. 4:13
3. I Kings 11:4, 9
4. II Sam. 12:14; I Cor. 5:1
5. James 4:17; Luke 12:47-48
6. Jer. 5:4-5
7. II Sam. 12:7-9; Ezek. 8:11-12
8. Rom. 2:17-24
9. Gal. 2:11-14
10. Matt. 21:38-39
11. I Sam. 2:25; Acts 5:4; Psa. 51:4
12. Rom. 2:4
13. Mal. 1:8, 14
14. Heb. 2:2-3; 12:25
15. Heb. 10:29; Matt. 12:31-32
16. Eph. 4:30
17. Heb. 6:4-6
18. Jude 1:8; Num. 12:8-9; Isa. 3:5
19. Prov. 30:17; II Cor. 12:15; Psa. 55:12-15
20. Zeph. 2:8, 10-11; Matt. 18:6; I Cor. 6:8; Rev. 17:6
21. I Cor. 8:11-12; Rom. 14:13, 15, 21
22. Ezek. 13:19; I Cor. 8:12; Rev. 18:12-13; Matt. 23:15
23. I Thess. 2:15-16; Josh. 22:20
24. Prov. 6:30-35
25. Ezra 9:10-12; I Kings 11:9-10
26. Col. 3:5; I Tim. 6:10; Prov. 5:8-12; 6:32-33; Josh. 7:21
27. James 1:14-15; Matt. 5:22; Micah 2:1
28. Matt. 18:7; Rom. 2:23-24
29. Deut 22:22, 28-29; Prov. 6:32-25
30. Matt. 11:21-24; John 15:22
31. Isa. 1:3; Deut. 32:6
32. Amos 4:8-11; Jer. 5:8
33. Rom. 1;26-27
34. Rom. 1:32; Dan. 5:22; Titus 3:10-11
35. Prov. 29:1
36. Titus 3:10; Matt. 18:17
37. Prov. 23:35, 27:22
38. Psa. 78:34-37; Jer. 2:20, 13:5-6, 20-21
39. Eccl. 5:4-6; Prov. 20:25
40. Lev. 26:25
41. Prov. 2:17; Ezek. 17:18-19
42. Psa. 36:4
43. Jer. 6:16
44. Num. 15:30; Exod. 21:14
45. Jer. 3:3; Prov. 7:13
46. Psa. 52:1
47. III John 1:10
48. Num. 14:22
49. Zech. 7:11-12
50. Prov. 2:14
51. Isa. 57:17
52. Jer. 34:8-11; II Peter 2:20-22
53. II Kings 5:26
54. Jer. 7:10; Isa. 26:10
55. Ezek. 23:37-39
56. Isa. 58:3-5; Num. 25:6-7
57. I Cor. 11:20-21
58. Jer. 7:8-10, 14-15; John 13:27, 30
59. Ezra 9:13-14
60. II Sam. 16:22; I Sam. 2:22-24


Q152: What doth every sin deserve at the hands of God?
A152: Every sin, even the least, being against the sovereignty,[1] goodness,[2] and holiness of God,[3] and against his righteous law,[4] deserveth his wrath and curse,[5] both in this life,[6] and that which is to come;[7] and cannot be expiated but by the blood of Christ.[8]

1. James 2:10-11
2. Exod. 20:1-2
3. Hab. 1:13; Lev. 10:3; 11:44-45
4. I John 3:4; Rom. 7:12
5. Eph. 5:6; Gal. 3:10
6. Lam. 3:39; Deut. 28:15-68
7. Matt. 25:41
8. Heb. 9:22; I Peter 1:18-19

Q153: What doth God require of us, that we may escape his wrath and curse due to us by reason of the transgression of the law?
A153: That we may escape the wrath and curse of God due to us by reason of the transgression of the law, he requireth of us repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ,[1] and the diligent use of the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation.[2]

1. Acts 16:30-31; 20:21; Matt. 3:7-8; Luke 13:3, 5; John 3:16, 18
2. Prov. 2:1-5; 8:33-36

Q154: What are the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation?
A154: The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to his church the benefits of his mediation, are all his ordinances; especially the word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for their salvation.[1]

1. Matt. 28:19-20; Acts 2:42, 46-47


Q155: How is the word made effectual to salvation?
A155: The Spirit of God makes the reading, but especially the preaching of the word, an effectual means of enlightening,[1] convincing, and humbling sinners;[2] of driving them out of themselves, and drawing them unto Christ;[3] of conforming them to his image,[4] and subduing them to his will;[5] of strengthening them against temptations and corruptions;[6] of building them up in grace,[7] and establishing their hearts in holiness and comfort through faith unto salvation.[8]

1. Neh. 8:8; Acts 26:18; Psa. 19:8
2. I Cor. 14:24-25; II Chr. 34:18-19, 26-28
3. Acts 2:37, 41; 8:27-39
4. II Cor. 3:18
5. II Cor. 10:4-6; Rom. 6:17
6. Matt. 4:4, 7, 10; Eph. 6:16-17; Psa. 19:11; I Cor. 10:11
7. Acts 20:32; II Tim. 3:15-17
8. Rom. 1:16; 10:13-17; 15:4; 16:25; I Thess. 3:2, 10-11, 13

Q156: Is the word of God to be read by all?
A156: Although all are not to be permitted to read the word publicly to the congregation,[1] yet all sorts of people are bound to read it apart by themselves,[2] and with their families:[3] to which end, the holy scriptures are to be translated out of the original into vulgar languages.[4]

1. Deut. 31:9, 11-13; Neh. 8:2-3; 9:3-5
2. Deut. 17:19; Rev. 1:3; John 5:39; Isa. 34:16
3. Deut. 6:6-9; Gen. 18:17, 19; Psa. 78:5-7
4. I Cor. 14:6, 9, 11-12, 15-16, 24, 27-28

Q157: How is the word of God to be read?
A157: The holy scriptures are to be read with an high and reverent esteem of them;[1] with a firm persuasion that they are the very word of God,[2] and that he only can enable us to understand them;[3] with desire to know, believe, and obey the will of God revealed in them;[4] with diligence,[5] and attention to the matter and scope of them;[6] with meditation,[7] application,[8] self-denial,[9] and prayer.[10]

1. Psa. 19:10; Neh. 8:3-10; Exod. 24:7; II Chr. 34:27; Isa. 66:2
2. II Peter 1:19-21
3. Luke 24:45; II Cor. 3:13-16
4. Deut. 17:10, 20
5. Acts 17:11
6. Acts 8:30, 34; Luke 10:26-28
7. Psa. 1:2, 119:97
8. II Chr. 24:21
9. Prov. 3:5; Deut 33:3
10. Prov. 2:1-6; Psa. 119:18; Neh. 7:6, 8


Q158: By whom is the word of God to be preached?
A158: The word of God is to be preached only by such as are sufficiently gifted,[1] and also duly approved and called to that office.[2]

1. I Tim. 3:2, 6; Eph. 4:8-11; Hosea 4:6; Mal. 2:7; II Cor. 3:6
2. Jer. 14:15; Rom. 10:15; Heb. 5:4; I Cor. 12:28-29; I Tim. 3:10; 4:14; 5:22

Q159: How is the word of God to be preached by those that are called thereunto?
A159: They that are called to labor in the ministry of the word, are to preach sound doctrine,[1] diligently,[2] in season and out of season;[3] plainly,[4] not in the enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit, and of power;[5] faithfully,[6] making known the whole counsel of God;[7] wisely,[8] applying themselves to the necessities and capacities of the hearers;[9] zealously,[10] with fervent love to God [11] and the souls of his people;[12] sincerely,[13] aiming at his glory,[14] and their conversion,[15] edification,[16] and salvation.[17]

1. Titus 2:1, 8
2. Acts 18:25
3. II Tim. 4:2
4. I Cor. 14:19
5. I Cor. 2:4
6. Jer. 23:28; I Cor. 4:1-2
7. Acts 20:27
8. Col. 1:28; II Tim. 2:15
9. I Cor. 3:2; Heb. 5:12-14; Luke 12:42
10. Acts 18:25
11. II Cor. 5:13-14; Phil. 1:15-17
12. Col. 4:12; II Cor. 12:15
13. II Cor. 2:17; 4:2
14. I Thess. 2:4-6; John 7:18
15. I Cor. 9:19-22
16. II Cor. 12:19; Eph. 4:12
17. I Tim. 4:16; Acts 26:16-18


Q160: What is required of those that hear the word preached?
A160: It is required of those that hear the word preached, that they attend upon it with diligence,[1] preparation,[2] and prayer;[3] examine: What they hear by the scriptures;[4] receive the truth with faith,[5] love,[6] meekness,[7] and readiness of mind,[8] as the word of God;[9] meditate,[10] and confer of it;[11] hide it in their hearts,[12] and bring forth the fruit of it in their lives.[13]

1. Prov. 8:34
2. I Peter 2:1-2; Luke 8:18
3. Psa. 119:18; Eph. 6:18-19
4. Acts 17:11
5. Heb. 4:2
6. II Thess 2:10
7. James 1:21
8. Acts 17:11
9. I Thess 2:13
10. Luke 9:44; Heb. 2:1
11. Luke 24:14; Deut 6:6-7
12. Prov. 2:1; Psa. 119:11
13. Luke 8:15; James 1:25


Q161: How do the sacraments become effectual means of salvation?
A161: The sacraments become effectual means of salvation, not by any power in themselves, or any virtue derived from the piety or intention of him by whom they are administered, but only by the working of the Holy Ghost, and the blessing of Christ, by whom they are instituted.[1]

1. I Peter 3:21; Acts 8:13, 23; I Cor. 3:6-7; 12:13

Q162: What is a sacrament?
A162: A sacrament is a holy ordinance instituted by Christ in his church,[1] to signify, seal, and exhibit [2] unto those that are within the covenant of grace,[3] the benefits of his mediation;[4] to strengthen and increase their faith, and all other graces;[5] to oblige them to obedience;[6] to testify and cherish their love and communion one with another;[7] and to distinguish them from those that are without.[8]

1. Gen. 17:7, 10; Exod. ch. 12; Matt. 26:26-28; 28:19
2. Rom. 4:11; I Cor. 11:24-25
3. Rom. 15:8; Exod. 12:48
4. Acts 2:38; I Cor. 10:16
5. Rom. 4:11; Gal. 3:27
6. Rom. 6:3-4; I Cor. 10:21
7. Eph. 4:2-5; I Cor. 12:13
8. Eph. 2:11-12; Gen. 34:14

Q163: What are the parts of a sacrament?
A163: The parts of a sacrament are two; the one an outward and sensible sign, used according to Christ's own appointment; the other an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified.[1]

1. Matt. 3:11; I Peter 3:27; Rom. 2:28-29

Q164: How many sacraments hath Christ instituted in his church under the New Testament?
A164: Under the New Testament Christ hath instituted in his church only two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's supper.[1]

1. Matt. 26:26-28; 28:19; I Cor. 11:20, 23


Q165: What is Baptism?
A165: Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, wherein Christ hath ordained the washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,[1] to be a sign and seal of ingrafting into himself,[2] of remission of sins by his blood,[3] and regeneration by his Spirit;[4] of adoption,[5] and resurrection unto everlasting life;[6] and whereby the parties baptized are solemnly admitted into the visible church,[7] and enter into an open and professed engagement to be wholly and only the Lord's.[8]

1. Matt. 28:19
2. Gal. 3:27
3. Mark 1:4; Rev. 1:5
4. Titus 3:5; Eph. 5:26
5. Gal. 3:26-27
6. I Cor. 15:29; Rom. 6:5
7. I Cor. 12:13
8. Rom. 6:4

Q166: Unto whom is Baptism to be administered?
A166: Baptism is not to be administered to any that are out of the visible church, and so strangers from the covenant of promise, till they profess their faith in Christ, and obedience to him,[1] but infants descending from parents, either both, or but one of them, professing faith in Christ, and obedience to him, are in that respect within the covenant, and to be baptized.[2]

1. Acts 2:38; 8:36-37
2. Gen. 17:7, 9; Gal. 3:9, 14; Col. 2:11-12; Acts 2:38-39; Rom. 4:11-12; 11:16; I Cor. 7:14; Matt 28:19; Luke 18:15-16


Q167: How is our Baptism to be improved by us?
A167: The needful but much neglected duty of improving our Baptism, is to be performed by us all our life long, especially in the time of temptation, and when we are present at the administration of it to others;[1] by serious and thankful consideration of the nature of it, and of the ends for which Christ instituted it, the privileges and benefits conferred and sealed thereby, and our solemn vow made therein;[2] by being humbled for our sinful defilement, our falling short of, and walking contrary to, the grace of baptism, and our engagements;[3] by growing up to assurance of pardon of sin, and of all other blessings sealed to us in that sacrament;[4] by drawing strength from the death and resurrection of Christ, into whom we are baptized, for the mortifying of sin, and quickening of grace;[5] and by endeavoring to live by faith,[6] to have our conversation in holiness and righteousness,[7] as those that have therein given up their names to Christ;[8] and to walk in brotherly love, as being baptized by the same Spirit into one body.[9]

1. Col. 2:11-12; Rom. 6:4, 6, 11
2. Rom. 6:3-5
3. I Cor. 1:11-13; Rom. 6:2-3
4. Rom. 4:11-12; I Peter 3:21
5. Rom. 6:3-5
6. Gal. 3:26-27
7. Rom. 6:22
8. Acts 2:38
9. I Cor. 12:13, 25-27


Q168: What is the Lord's supper?
A168: The Lord's supper is a sacrament of the New Testament,[1] wherein, by giving and receiving bread and wine according to the appointment of Jesus Christ, his death is showed forth; and they that worthily communicate feed upon his body and blood, to their spiritual nourishment and growth in grace;[2] have their union and communion with him confirmed;[3] testify and renew their thankfulness,[4] and engagement to God,[5] and their mutual love and fellowship each with other, as members of the same mystical body.[6]

1. Luke 22:20
2. Matt. 26:26-28; I Cor. 11:13-26
3. I Cor. 10:16
4. I Cor. 11:24
5. I Cor. 10:14-16, 21
6. I Cor. 10:17

Q169: How hath Christ appointed bread and wine to be given and received in the sacrament of the Lord's supper?
A169: Christ hath appointed the ministers of his word, in the administration of this sacrament of the Lord's Supper, to set apart the bread and wine from common use, by the word of institution, thanksgiving, and prayer; to take and break the bread, and to give both the bread and the wine to the communicants: who are, by the same appointment, to take and eat the bread, and to drink the wine, in thankful remembrance that the body of Christ was broken and given, and his blood shed, for them.[1]

1. I Cor. 11:23-24; Matt. 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20


Q170: How do they that worthily communicate in the Lord's supper feed upon the body and blood of Christ therein?
A170: As the body and blood of Christ are not corporally or carnally present in, with, or under the bread and wine in the Lord's supper,[1] and yet are spiritually present to the faith of the receiver, no less truly and really than the elements themselves are to their outward senses;[2] so they that worthily communicate in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, do therein feed upon the body and blood of Christ, not after a corporal and carnal, but in a spiritual manner; yet truly and really,[3] while by faith they receive and apply unto themselves Christ crucified, and all the benefits of his death.[4]

1. Acts 3:21
2. Matt. 26:26, 28
3. I Cor. 11:24-29
4. I Cor. 10:16

Q171: How are they that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper to prepare themselves before they come unto it?
A171: They that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper are, before they come, to prepare themselves thereunto, by examining themselves [1] of their being in Christ,[2] of their sins and wants;[3] of the truth and measure of their knowledge,[4] faith,[5] repentance;[6] love to God and the brethren,[7] charity to all men,[8] forgiving those that have done them wrong;[9] of their desires after Christ,[10] and of their new obedience;[11] and by renewing the exercise of these graces,[12] by serious meditation,[13] and fervent prayer.[14]

1. I Cor. 11:28
2. II Cor. 13:5
3. I Cor. 5:7; Exod. 12:15
4. I Cor. 11:29
5. I Cor. 13:5; Matt. 26:28
6. Zech. 12:10; I Cor. 11:31
7. I Cor. 10:16-17; Acts 2:46-47
8. I Cor. 5:8; 11:18, 20
9. Matt. 5:23-24
10. Isa .55:1; John 7:37
11. I Cor. 5:7-8
12. I Cor. 11:25-26, 28; Heb. 10:21-22, 24; Psa. 26:6
13. I Cor. 11:24-25
14. II Chr. 30:18-19; Matt. 26:26


Q172: May one who doubteth of his being in Christ, or of his due preparation, come to the Lord's supper?
A172: One who doubteth of his being in Christ, or of his due preparation to the sacrament of the Lord's supper, may have true interest in Christ, though he be not yet assured thereof;[1] and in God's account hath it, if he be duly affected with the apprehension of the want of it,[2] and unfeignedly desires to be found in Christ,[3] and to depart from iniquity:[4] in which case (because promises are made, and this sacrament is appointed, for the relief even of weak and doubting Christians)[5] he is to bewail his unbelief,[6] and labor to have his doubts resolved;[7] and, so doing, he may and ought to come to the Lord's supper, that he may be further strengthened.[8]

1. Isa. 1:10; I John 5:13; Psa. 77:1-12; ch 88; Jonah 2:4, 7
2. Isa. 54:7-10; Matt. 5:3-4; Psa. 31:22; 73:13, 22-23
3. Phil 3:8-9; Psa. 10:17; 42:1-2, 5, 11
4. II Tim. 2:19; Isa. 1:10; Psa. 66:18-20
5. Isa. 4:11, 29, 31; Matt. 11:28; 12:20; 26:28
6. Mark 9:24
7. Acts 2:37, 16:30
8. Rom. 4:11; I Cor. 11:28

Q173: May any who profess the faith, and desire to come to the Lord's supper, be kept from it?
A173: Such as are found to be ignorant or scandalous, notwithstanding their profession of the faith, and desire to come to the Lord's supper, may and ought to be kept from that sacrament, by the power which Christ hath left in his church,[1] until they receive instruction, and manifest their reformation.[2]

1. I Cor. ch. 5; 11:27-31; Matt. 7:6; Jude 1:23; I Tim. 5:22
2. II Cor. 2:7


Q174: What is required of them that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper in the time of the administration of it?
A174: It is required of them that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper, that, during the time of the administration of it, with all holy reverence and attention they wait upon God in that ordinance,[1] diligently observe the sacramental elements and actions,[2] heedfully discern the Lord's body,[3] and affectionately meditate on his death and sufferings,[4] and thereby stir up themselves to a vigorous exercise of their graces;[5] in judging themselves,[6] and sorrowing for sin;[7] in earnest hungering and thirsting after Christ,[8] feeding on him by faith,[9] receiving of his fulness,[10] trusting in his merits,[11] rejoicing in his love,[12] giving thanks for his grace;[13] in renewing of their covenant with God, and love to all the saints.[14]

1. Lev. 10:3; Heb. 12:18; Psa. 5:7; I Cor. 11:17, 26-27
2. Exod. 24:8; Matt. 26:28
3. I Cor. 11:29
4. Luke 22:19
5. I Cor. 10:3-5, 11, 14; 11:26
6. I Cor. 11:31
7. Zech. 12:10
8. Rev. 22:17
9. John 6:35
10. John 1:16
11. Phil. 1:16
12. Psa. 63:4-5; II Chr. 30:21
13. Psa. 22:26
14. Jer. 1:5; Psa. 1:5
15. Acts 2:42

Q175: What is the duty of Christians, after they have received the sacrament of the Lord's supper?
A175: The duty of Christians, after they have received the sacrament of the Lord's supper, is seriously to consider how they have behaved themselves therein, and with what success;[1] if they find quickening and comfort, to bless God for it,[2] beg the continuance of it,[3] watch against relapses,[4] fulfil their vows,[5] and encourage themselves to a frequent attendance on that ordinance:[6] but if they find no present benefit, more exactly to review their preparation to, and carriage at, the sacrament;[7] in both which, if they can approve themselves to God and their own consciences, they are to wait for the fruit of it in due time:[8] but, if they see they have failed in either, they are to be humbled,[9] and to attend upon it afterwards with more care and diligence.[10]

1. Psa. 28:7, 85:8; I Cor. 11:17, 30-31
2. II Chr. 30:21-16; Acts 2:42, 46
3. Psa. 36:10; Song of Sol. 3:4; I Chr. 29:18
4. I Cor. 10:3-5, 12
5. Psa. 1:14
6. I Cor. 11:25-26; Acts 2:42, 46
7. Song of Sol. 5:1-6; Eccl. 5:1-6
8. Psa. 42:5, 8; 43:3-5; 123:1-2
9. II Chr. 30:18-19; Isa. 1:16, 18
10. II Cor. 7:11; I Chr. 15:12-14


Q176: Wherein do the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper agree?
A176: The sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper agree, in that the author of both is God;[1] the spiritual part of both is Christ and his benefits;[2] both are seals of the same covenant,[3] are to be dispensed by ministers of the gospel, and by none other;[4] and to be continued in the church of Christ until his second coming.[5]

1. Matt. 28:19; I Cor. 11:23
2. Rom. 6:3-4; I Cor. 10:16
3. Rom. 4:11; Col. 2:12; Matt. 26:27-28
4. John 1:33; Matt. 28:19; I Cor. 4:1; 11:23; Heb. 5:4
5. Matt. 28:19-20; I Cor. 11:26

Q177: Wherein do the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper differ?
A177: The sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper differ, in that baptism is to be administered but once, with water, to be a sign and seal of our regeneration and ingrafting into Christ,[1] and that even to infants;[2] whereas the Lord's supper is to be administered often, in the elements of bread and wine, to represent and exhibit Christ as spiritual nourishment to the soul,[3] and to confirm our continuance and growth in him,[4] and that only to such as are of years and ability to examine themselves.[5]

1. Matt. 3:11; Titus 3:5; Gal. 3:27
2. Gen. 17:7, 9; Acts 2:38-39; I Cor. 7:14
3. I Cor. 11:23-26
4. I Cor. 10:16
5. I Cor. 11:28-29


Q178: What is prayer?
A178: Prayer is an offering up of our desires unto God,[1] in the name of Christ,[2] by the help of his Spirit;[3] with confession of our sins,[4] and thankful acknowledgment of his mercies.[5]

1. Psa. 62:8
2. John 16:23
3. Rom. 8:26
4. Psa. 32:5-6; Dan. 9:4
5. Phil. 4:6

Q179: Are we to pray unto God only?
A179: God only being able to search the hearts,[1] hear the requests,[2] pardon the sins,[3] and fulfil the desires of all;[4] and only to be believed in,[5] and worshiped with religious worship;[6] prayer, which is a special part thereof,[7] is to be made by all to him alone,[8] and to none other.[9]

1. I Kings 8:39; Acts 1:24; Rom. 8:27
2. Psa. 65:2
3. Micah 7:18
4. Psa. 145:18-19
5. Rom. 10:14
6. Matt. 4:10
7. I Cor. 1:2
8. Psa. 1:15
9. Rom. 10:14


Q180: What is it to pray in the name of Christ?
A180: To pray in the name of Christ is, in obedience to his command, and in confidence on his promises, to ask mercy for his sake;[1] not by bare mentioning of his name,[2] but by drawing our encouragement to pray, and our boldness, strength, and hope of acceptance in prayer, from Christ and his mediation.[3]

1. John 14:13-14, 16:24; Dan. 9:17
2. Matt. 7:21
3. Heb. 4:14-16; I John 5:13-15

Q181: Why are we to pray in the name of Christ?
A181: The sinfulness of man, and his distance from God by reason thereof, being so great, as that we can have no access into his presence without a mediator;[1] and there being none in heaven or earth appointed to, or fit for, that glorious work but Christ alone,[2] we are to pray in no other name but his only.[3]

1. John 14:6; Isa. 59:2; Eph. 3:12
2. John 6:27; Heb. 7:25-27; I Tim. 2:5
3. Col. 3:17; Heb. 13:15

Q182: How doth the Spirit help us to pray?
A182: We not knowing: What to pray for as we ought, the Spirit helps our infirmities, by enabling us to understand both for whom, and: What, and: How prayer is to be made; and by working and quickening in our hearts (although not in all persons, nor at all times, in the same measure) those apprehensions, affections, and graces which are requisite for the right performance of that duty.[1]

1. Rom. 8:26-27; Psa. 10:17; Zech. 12:10


Q183: For whom are we to pray?
A183: We are to pray for the whole church of Christ upon earth;[1] for magistrates,[2] and ministers;[3] for ourselves,[4] our brethren,[5] yea, our enemies;[6] and for all sorts of men living,[7] or that shall live hereafter;[8] but not for the dead,[9] nor for those that are known to have sinned the sin unto death.[10]

1. Eph. 6:18; Psa. 28:9
2. I Tim. 2:1-2
3. Col. 4:3
4. Gen. 32:11
5. James 5:16
6. Matt. 5:44
7. I Tim. 2:1-2
8. John 17:20; II Sam. 7:29
9. II Sam. 12:21-23
10. I John 5:16

Q184: For what things are we to pray?
A184: We are to pray for all things tending to the glory of God,[1] the welfare of the church,[2] our own [3] or others good;[4] but not for anything that is unlawful.[5]

1. Matt. 6:9
2. Psa. 51:18, 122:6
3. Matt. 7:11
4. Psa. 125:4
5. I John 5:14

Q185: How are we to pray.?
A185: We are to pray with an awful apprehension of the majesty of God,[1] and deep sense of our own unworthiness,[2] necessities,[3] and sins;[4] with penitent,[5] thankful,[6] and enlarged hearts;[7] with understanding,[8] faith,[9] sincerity,[10] fervency,[11] love,[12] and perseverance,[13] waiting upon him,[14] with humble submission to his will.[15]

1. Eccl. 5:1
2. Gen. 18:27; 32:10
3. Luke 15:17-19
4. Luke 18:13-14
5. Psa. 51:17
6. Phil. 4:6
7. I Sam. 1:15, 2:1
8. I Cor. 14:15
9. Mark 11:24; James 1:6
10. Psa. 17:1; 145:18
11. James 5:16
12. I Tim. 2:8
13. Eph. 6:18
14. Micah 7:7
15. Matt. 26:39


Q186: What rule hath God given for our direction in the duty of prayer?
A186: The whole word of God is of use to direct us in the duty of prayer;[1] but the special rule of direction is that form of prayer which our Savior Christ taught his disciples, commonly called The Lord's prayer.[2]

1. I John 5:14
2. Matt. 6:2-13; Luke 11:2-4

Q187: How is the Lord's prayer to be used?
A187: The Lord's prayer is not only for direction, as a pattern, according to which we are to make other prayers; but may also be used as a prayer, so that it be done with understanding, faith, reverence, and other graces necessary to the right performance of the duty of prayer.[1]

1. Matt. 6:9; Luke 11:2

Q188: Of how many parts doth the Lord's prayer consist?
A188: The Lord's prayer consists of three parts; a preface, petitions, and a conclusion.

Q189: What doth the preface of the Lord's prayer teach us?
A189: The preface of the Lord's prayer (contained in these words, Our Father which art in heaven,)[1] teacheth us, when we pray, to draw near to God with confidence of his fatherly goodness, and our interest therein;[2] with reverence, and all other childlike dispositions,[3] heavenly affections,[4] and due apprehensions of his sovereign power, majesty, and gracious condescension:[5] as also, to pray with and for others.[6]

1. Matt. 6:9
2. Luke 11:13; Rom. 8:15
3. Isa. 64:9
4. Psa. 123:1; Lam. 3:41
5. Isa. 63:15-16; Neh. 1:4-6
6. Acts 12:5


Q190: What do we pray for in the first petition?
A190: In the first petition (which is, Hallowed be thy name,)[1] acknowledging the utter inability and indisposition that is in ourselves and all men to honor God aright,[2] pray, that God would by his grace enable and incline us and others to know, to acknowledge, and highly to esteem him,[3] his titles,[4] attributes,[5] ordinances, word,[6] works, and whatsoever he is pleased to make himself known by;[7] and to glorify him in thought, word,[8] and deed:[9] that he would prevent and remove atheism,[10] ignorance,[11] idolatry,[12] profaneness,[13] and: whatsoever is dishonorable to him;[14] and, by his overruling providence, direct and dispose of all things to his own glory.[15]

1. Matt. 6:9
2. II Cor. 3:5; Psa. 51:15
3. Psa. 67:2-3
4. Psa. 83:18
5. Psa. 86:10-13, 15
6. II Thess. 3:1; Psa. 138:1-3; 147:19-20; II Cor. 2:14-15
7. Psa. ch. 8; ch. 145
8. Psa. 19:14; 103:1
9. Phil. 1:9, 11
10. Psa. 67:1-4
11. Eph. 1:17-18
12. Psa. 97:7
13. Psa. 74:18, 22-23
14. II Kings 19:15-16
15. II Chr. 20:6, 10-12; Psa. ch. 83; 140:4, 8


Q191: What do we pray for in the second petition.?
A191: In the second petition (which is, Thy kingdom come,)[1] acknowledging ourselves and all mankind to be by nature under the dominion of sin and Satan,[2] we pray, that the kingdom of sin and Satan may be destroyed,[3] the gospel propagated throughout the world,[4] the Jews called,[5] the fulness of the Gentiles brought in;[6] the church furnished with all gospel officers and ordinances,[7] purged from corruption,[8] countenanced and maintained by the civil magistrate:[9] that the ordinances of Christ may be purely dispensed, and made effectual to the converting of those that are yet in their sins, and the confirming, comforting, and building up of those that are already converted:[10] that Christ would rule in our hearts here,[11] and hasten the time of his second coming, and our reigning with him forever:[12] and that he would be pleased so to exercise the kingdom of his power in all the world, as may best conduce to these ends.[13]

1. Matt. 6:10
2. Eph. 2:2-3
3. Psa. 67:1, 18; Rev. 12:10-11
4. II Thess. 3:1
5. Rom. 10:1
6. John 17:9, 20; Rom. 11:25-26; Psa. ch. 67
7. Matt. 9:38; II Thess. 3:1
8. Mal. 1:11; Zeph. 3:9
9. I Tim. 2:1-2
10. Acts 4:29-30; Eph. 6:18-20; Rom. 15:29-30, 32; II Thess. 1:11; 2:16-17
11. Eph. 3:14-20
12. Rev. 22:20
13. Isa. 64:1-2; Rev. 4:8-11


Q192: What do we pray for in the third petition?
A192: In the third petition (which is, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven,)[1] acknowledging, that by nature we and all men are not only utterly unable and unwilling to know and do the will of God,[2] but prone to rebel against his word,[3] to repine and murmur against his providence,[4] and wholly inclined to do the will of the flesh, and of the devil:[5] we pray, that God would by his Spirit take away from ourselves and others all blindness,[6] weakness,[7] indisposedness,[8] and perverseness of heart;[9] and by his grace make us able and willing to know, do, and submit to his will in all things,[10] with the like humility,[11] cheerfulness,[12] faithfulness,[13] diligence,[14] zeal,[15] sincerity,[16] and constancy,[17] as the angels do in heaven.[18]

1. Matt. 6:10
2. Rom. 7:18; Job 21:14; I Cor. 2:14
3. Rom. 8:7
4. Exod. 17:7; Num. 14:2
5. Eph. 2:2
6. Eph. 1:17-18
7. Eph. 3:16
8. Matt. 26:40-41
9. Jer. 31:18-19
10. Psa. 119:1, 8, 35-36; Acts 21:14
11. Micah 6:8
12. Psa. 100:2; Job 1:21; II Sam. 15:25-26
13. Isa. 38:3
14. Psa. 119:4-5
15. Rom. 12:11
16. Psa. 119:80
17. Psa. 119:112
18. Isa. 6:2-3; Psa. 103:20-21; Matt. 18:10


Q193: What do we pray for in the fourth petition?
A193: In the fourth petition (which is, Give us this day our daily bread,)[1] acknowledging, that in Adam, and by our own sin, we have forfeited our right to all the outward blessings of this life, and deserve to be wholly deprived of them by God, and to have them cursed to us in the use of them;[2] and that neither they of themselves are able to sustain us,[3] nor we to merit,[4] or by our own industry to procure them;[5] but prone to desire,[6] get,[7] and use them unlawfully:[8] we pray for ourselves and others, that both they and we, waiting upon the providence of God from day to day in the use of lawful means, may, of his free gift, and as to his fatherly wisdom shall seem best, enjoy a competent portion of them;[9] and have the same continued and blessed unto us in our holy and comfortable use of them,[10] and contentment in them;[11] and be kept from all things that are contrary to our temporal support and comfort.[12]

1. Matt. 6:11
2. Gen. 2:17, 3:17; Rom. 8:20-22; Jer. 5:25; Deut. 28:15-68
3. Deut. 8:3
4. Gen. 32:10
5. Deut. 8:17-18
6. Jer. 6:13; Mark 7:21-22
7. Hosea 12:7
8. James 4:3
9. Gen. 28:20; 43:12-14; Eph. 4:28; II Thess. 3:11-12; Phil. 4:6
10. I Tim. 4:3-5
11. I Tim. 6:6-8
12. Prov. 30:8-9


Q194: What do we pray for in the fifth petition?
A194: In the fifth petition (which is, Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors,)[1] acknowledging, that we and all others are guilty both of original and actual sin, and thereby become debtors to the justice of God; and that neither we, nor any other creature, can make the least satisfaction for that debt:[2] we pray for ourselves and others, that God of his free grace would, through the obedience and satisfaction of Christ, apprehended and applied by faith, acquit us both from the guilt and punishment of sin,[3] accept us in his Beloved;[4] continue his favor and grace to us,[5] pardon our daily failings,[6] and fill us with peace and joy, in giving us daily more and more assurance of forgiveness;[7] which we are the rather emboldened to ask, and encouraged to expect, when we have this testimony in ourselves, that we from the heart forgive others their offenses.[8]

1. Matt. 6:12
2. Rom. 3:9-22; Matt. 18:24-25; Psa. 130:3-4
3. Rom. 3:24-26; Heb. 9:22
4. Eph. 1:6-7
5. II Peter 1:2
6. Hosea 14:2; Jer. 14:7
7. Rom. 15:13; Psa. 51:7-10, 12
8. Luke 11:4; Matt. 6:14-15; 18:35


Q195: What do we pray for in the sixth petition?
A195: In the sixth petition (which is, And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil,)[1] acknowledging, that the most wise, righteous, and gracious God, for divers holy and just ends, may so order things, that we may be assaulted, foiled, and for a time led captive by temptations;[2] that Satan,[3] the world,[4] and the flesh, are ready powerfully to draw us aside, and ensnare us;[5] and that we, even after the pardon of our sins, by reason of our corruption,[6] weakness, and want of watchfulness,[7] are not only subject to be tempted, and forward to expose ourselves unto temptations,[8] but also of ourselves unable and unwilling to resist them, to recover out of them, and to improve them;[9] and worthy to be left under the power of them:[10] we pray, that God would so overrule the world and all in it,[11] subdue the flesh,[12] and restrain Satan,[13] order all things,[14] bestow and bless all means of grace,[15] and quicken us to watchfulness in the use of them, that we and all his people may by his providence be kept from being tempted to sin;[16] or, if tempted, that by his Spirit we may be powerfully supported and enabled to stand in the hour of temptation;[17] or when fallen, raised again and recovered out of it,[18] and have a sanctified use and improvement thereof:[19] that our sanctification and salvation may be perfected,[20] Satan trodden under our feet,[21] and we fully freed from sin, temptation, and all evil, forever.[22]

1. Matt. 6:13; II Chr. 32:31
2. I Chr. 32:31
3. I Chr. 21:1
4. Luke 21:34; Mark 4:19
5. James 1:14
6. Gal. 5:17
7. Matt. 26:41
8. Matt. 26:69-72; Gal. 2:11-14; II Chr. 18:3; 19:2
9. Rom. 7:23-24; I Chr. 21:1-4; II Chr. 16:7-10
10. Psa. 81:11-12
11. John 17:15
12. Psa. 51:10; 119:133
13. II Cor. 12:7-8
14. I Cor. 10:12-13
15. Heb. 13:20-21
16. Matt. 26:41; Psa. 19:13
17. Eph. 3:14-17; I Thess. 3:13; Jude 1:24
18. Psa. 51:12
19. I Peter 5:8-10
20. II Cor. 13:7, 9
21. Rom. 16:20; Zech. 3:2; Luke 22:31-32
22. John 17:15; I Thess. 5:23


Q196: What doth the conclusion of the Lord's prayer teach us?
A196: The conclusion of the Lord's prayer (which is, For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen.),[1] teaches us to enforce our petitions with arguments,[2] which are to be taken, not from any worthiness in ourselves, or in any other creature, but from God;[3] and with our prayers to join praises,[4] ascribing to God alone eternal sovereignty, omnipotency, and glorious excellency;[5] in regard whereof, as he is able and willing to help us,[6] so we by faith are emboldened to plead with him that he would,[7] and quietly to rely upon him, that he will fulfil our requests.[8] And, to testify this our desire and assurance, we say, Amen.[9]

1. Matt. 6:13
2. Rom. 15:30
3. Dan. 9:4, 7-9, 16-19
4. Phil. 4:6
5. I Chr. 29:10-13
6. Eph. 3:20-21; Luke 11:13
7. II Chr. 20:6, 11
8. II Chr. 14:11
9. I Cor. 14:16; Rev. 22:20-21